TREATMENTS TO THWART MULTIPLE MYELOMA
According to https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/
Multiple myeloma is a category of blood cancer that disturbs plasma cells.
These immune system cells make antibodies to help combat infections. Most plasma cells are placed in the bone marrow, so multiple myeloma tumours are frequently found in bone. Blood cells are made up in the bone marrow.
Multiple myeloma takes up space and leaves less space for normal bone marrow.
This can cause problems such as:
Not enough red blood cells. It can lead to weakness and tiredness.
Not enough blood platelets called thrombocytes. These are needed to form blood clots. Otherwise causes excess bleeding or bruising.
Not enough white blood cells. This can lead to a weakening of the immune system.
TESTS TO FIND OUT MULTIPLE MYELOMA AND WAYS TO CURE IT
The complete blood count (CBC) is a test that weighs the levels of red cells, white cells, and platelets in the blood. If there are too many myeloma cells in the bone marrow, some of these blood cell levels can be low.
Blood Chemistry Tests
Levels of blood creatinine, albumin, calcium, and other electrolytes are checked in this test. Creatinine levels show how well your kidneys are working. High levels mean that the kidneys are not effective. This is common in people suffering from myeloma. Albumin is a protein found in the blood. Low levels of albumin can be observed in people suffering from myeloma.
Calcium levels may be high in people with advanced myeloma. High calcium levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to symptoms of fatigue, weakness, and confusion.
A blood test to measure lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels is carried out too. High levels of LDH means the ailment is more advanced and may have a worse prognosis.
24-hour Urine test
A urine sample is taken to look for myeloma protein that has sieved through the kidney. The sample of urine that has been collected over a 24-hour period, so it can measure how much myeloma protein is present. These tests are called urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP) and urine immunofixation.
This test measures the blood levels of the different antibodies (also called immunoglobulins).
There are numerous diverse types of antibodies in the blood: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. The levels of these immunoglobulin’s are determined to see if any of these are abnormally high or low. In multiple myeloma particularly, the level of one type may be high while the others are low.
The antibody created by myeloma cells is unusual because it is monoclonal. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) is a test that weighs the antibodies in the blood and can find a monoclonal antibody.
Another test, called immunofixation or immunoelectrophoresis, is used to measure the same type of irregular antibody (IgG. IgA or some other type). Determining a monoclonal antibody in the blood may be the foremost step in identifying multiple myeloma. This particular abnormal protein is known by more than a few different names, like monoclonal immunoglobulin, monoclonal protein (M protein), M spike, or paraprotein.
Serum Free Light Chains
This is a blood test that can measure the light chain levels in the blood and is done when looking for myeloma or light chain amyloidosis. This is most supportive in the rare cases of myeloma in which no M protein is found by SPEP
Bone Marrow Biopsy
Those suffering with multiple myeloma have excess plasma cells in their bone marrow. The process used to check the bone marrow is called a bone marrow biopsy and aspiration.
Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNA)
Fine needle aspiration (FNA) uses a very thin needle and a syringe to extract a minor amount of tissue from a tumour or lymph node.
Core Needle Biopsy
This test is alike FNA, but a larger needle is used and a larger tissue sample is detached.
Imaging tests done in multiple myeloma or cancer uses sound waves, x-rays, magnetic fields, or radioactive substances.
This is done for a number of reasons, such as:
- Find out suspicious areas that might be cancer
- Ensure how far cancer has spread
- Ensure if treatment is effective
Some of them are:
X-rays can spot bone annihilation caused by the myeloma cells.
CT Scan (Computed tomography scan)
A CT scan uses x-rays taken from diverse angles, joints by a computer to make thorough pictures of the organs.
Sometimes, this test can help tell if your bones have been injured by myeloma.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scans
Like CT scans, MRI scans show comprehensive images of soft tissues in the body. But MRI scans use radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays.
MRI scans are very supportive in looking at bones, the brain, and the spinal cord. MRI can also be used to look at the bone marrow in patients with multiple myeloma.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scans
For this test, a form of radioactive sugar is put into a vein and travels through the body. Cancer cells absorb high amounts of this induced sugar. A special camera then takes pictures that show the areas where the sugar collected throughout the body.
A PET scan is often combined with a CT scan (known as a PET/CT scan).
What Is The Most Definitive Test To Confirm A Diagnosis Of Multiple Myeloma Quizlet?
A definite validation of multiple myeloma can be made only through a bone marrow biopsy; this is a plasma cell malignancy with extensive bone destruction
What Is Fish Test In Multiple Myeloma?
The most commonly run genetics test is called the FISH test. A fluorescence in situ hybridization test (FISH) charts out the genetic material of a cell. Special fluorescent dyes are used, these attach to specific parts of chromosomes
The Bence-Jones protein urine test is most frequently used to diagnose and check on multiple myeloma, a type of cancer. Multiple myeloma is a type of blood cancer that affects plasma cells.
TREATING TO CURE MULTIPLE MYELOMA
Both non-intensive and intensive treatments comprise taking a combination of anti-myeloma medicines.
The intensive treatment contains higher doses, followed by a stem cell transplant.
Chemotherapy medicines slay the myeloma cells. A number of treatments are often combined to treat multiple myeloma.
Corticosteroids help finish myeloma cells and make chemotherapy more effective
- Thalidomide can help kill myeloma cells.
- Bortezomib (Velcade) can help exterminate myeloma cells by causing protein to build up inside them.
Stem Cell Transplant
People receiving intensive treatment are given a much higher dose of chemotherapy medication as an inpatient to help destroy a larger number of myeloma cells.
This aims to achieve a longer period of remission (where there is no sign of active disease in your body) but does not result in a cure.
Treating multiple myeloma is complex, regularly involves some combination of traditional chemotherapy, non chemotherapy drugs that target the cancer cells, corticosteroids and, in patients who can endure it, stem cell/bone marrow transplant.
The exact combination and timing of these treatments varies from patient to patient. Treatment for multiple myeloma can often help to control symptoms and improve quality of life.
Listen carefully to the patient’s feelings. Having a set of helpful people is very advantageous for the patient suffering from cancer, especially emotional support. Managing stress and reducing stress levels can help maintain patient’s physical and mental health.