Toxic Multinodular Goiter is a condition in which the thyroid gland becomes enlarged and develops multiple nodules within which begin acting like autonomously functioning thyroid nodules resulting in hyperthyroidism.
This is also known as Plummer’s disease. The size of the nodules may differ. Some could be very small while others could be large. It is signified by a low level of T4 hormone production which increases the level of TSH produced by the pituitary gland. The excess TSH causes the thyroid gland to grow large.
Symptoms of Toxic Multinodular Goiter:
The symptoms are much similar to those of Hyperthyroidism. These are as follows:
2) Intolerance towards heat
3) Excessive sweating
4) Increased appetite
5) Weight loss
6) Frequent bowel movements
7) Muscle cramps
8) Irregular menstrual cycle
Causes of Toxic Multinodular Goiter:
1) A deficiency of iodine is the leading cause of toxic Multinodular Goiter. Lack of iodine causes low production of the T4 hormone.
2) An increase in the production of the thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH can also cause Multinodular Goiter.
Diagnosis of Toxic Multinodular Goiter:
1) Physical Examination –
The patient is physically examined to see if the goiter can be felt, if the veins of the neck are enlarged or if the growth has moved down into the chest.
2) A thyroid ultrasound or USG –
Can be done that will show the size of the nodules, the number of nodules, borders, shapes, if calcification has happened, if the nodules are fluid-filled or solid, etc.
3) Biopsy –
Once the nodules have been studied through ultrasound, a biopsy is conducted to determine if the nodules are malignant or benign.
Complications of Toxic Multinodular Goiter:
1. The compression of the trachea due to an abnormally large thyroid could be a possible risk because this will cause problems in breathing.
2. If this condition is not analyzed properly, it may lead to thyroid cancer.
3. Complications related to the cardiovascular system may occur especially in the form of atrial fibrillation, rapid heart rate, congestive heart failure, etc. may occur.
4. Hyperthyroidism can also lead to osteoporosis since it reduces bone density.
5. Thyroid storm is a deadly condition that may occur if hyperthyroidism is not treated properly and increases uncontrollably. This is characterized by fever, lack of alertness, pain in the abdomen, etc.
Risk Factors of Toxic Multinodular Goiter:
1. Females over the age of 60 are more likely to fall prey to this disease.
2. Smokers are at a higher risk of falling prey to this disease.
Treatment and Process for Toxic Multinodular Goiter:
1. Administration of radioactive iodine is a common form of treatment.
2. Surgery is performed to remove the nodules as an alternative.
3. Anti-thyroid drugs can be administered to treat toxic multinodular goiter.
4. Beta-blockers are given to control some symptoms of hyperthyroidism arising from toxic multinodular goiter.
Prevention of Toxic Multinodular Goiter:
The best way to prevent this disease is by treating simple goiter and hyperthyroidism properly. When these conditions are not treated, they may evolve into Toxic Multinodular Goiter.
Also, a curcumin supplement can help in managing thyroid-related disorders effectively and naturally.
Curcumin helps in the following ways:
1) Prevention of genetic damage in people taking radioactive-iodine treatment –
Consumption of curcumin supplements during the administration of radioactive iodine I-131 treatment lowers the probability of post-treatment hypothyroidism.
2) The anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin help in alleviating the effects of Hyperthyroidism. It has been seen to reduce pain, swelling, and uncontrolled growth of the thyroid gland.
3) The anti-carcinogenic properties of curcumin help in keeping thyroid cancer at bay. Thyroid cancer is a common long-term outcome of hyperthyroidism.
4) Curcumin brings down the level of oxidative enzymes produced in the body due to hyperthyroidism. These enzymes are known to cause oxidative stress. The antioxidant properties of curcumin reverse the effects of oxidative stress thus caused.
It can be taken as follows:
Mix 1/2 a teaspoon of Thyromeric to a saucepan with a pinch of salt and coconut milk and boil. Consume this concoction every day for the best results.
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Research on curcumin benefits in Toxic Multinodular Goiter.
Click here for more details: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26299635
There are numerous studies that prove that having turmeric in the diet can reduce or in some cases ceased the symptoms of Goiter. Like Selenium, Turmeric is also a powerful anti-oxidant that protects thyroid glands from damages caused by free radicals. Its main ingredient Curcumin can help in mitigating the risk of Goiter. Since Curcumin is also known to possess anti-cancer properties, it helps ward off any danger of developing thyroid cancer as a byproduct of Goiter.